La Jurisprudence Du Culte, En Images (French Edition)

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Bowen Limited preview - They also provide coordination, strategic leadership and some funding for a number of small, local Muslims organizations — some of which, particularly in France and the United Kingdom, are led by people with no direct ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. These local organizations engage in a wide range of activities designed to serve the day-to-day religious needs of Muslims, such as ensuring access to halal meat, operating prayer halls, sponsoring after-school classes on the Quran, distributing copies of the Quran or providing burial services.

The large, national Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated organizations fall under the loose jurisdiction of the Brussels-based Federation of Islamic Organizations in Europe, an umbrella group founded in that represents Muslim organizations in more than two dozen European countries. The Federation has at times suffered from leadership disputes and rivalries between its major national bodies.

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The Federation was responsible for the creation in of the European Institute of Human Sciences, a facility for promoting the study of classical Islamic scholarship among European Muslims. The Federation also founded the European Council for Fatwa and Research in Dublin, which conducts research on Islamic jurisprudence and dispenses religious opinions on practical issues specific to Muslims in Europe, such as the observance of prayers and the permissibility — given Islamic proscriptions against interest and usury — of using Western financial systems.

Other organizations inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood have established Islamic centers across the continent to help meet the religious needs of local Muslim communities, including providing spaces for religious classes, libraries, and shops with Islamic books and other religious items. In addition, about mosques and prayer spaces in Europe were said to be at least indirectly associated with the Muslim Brotherhood as of In Europe, the group is particularly strong in the United Kingdom, where more than two-thirds of the Muslim population of about 2.

But younger generations, particularly those raised in the U. In the U.

While their active membership and intellectual appeal are largely confined to well-educated, professional Muslims, the two groups also organize well-attended mass retreats and run neighborhood mentoring programs in less-affluent Muslim areas of the U. And in the U.

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While some Islamist organizations are establishing closer ties with European governments, others are joining forces with non-Muslim activists in opposition to certain government policies. For instance, one U. The Muslim Brotherhood and its affiliates often succeed in setting the public agenda for European Muslims more broadly. But this agenda may be changing.

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While many of the original Brotherhood-inspired organizations are still headed by the first generation of leaders — many of whom were born outside of Europe — the second and, in some cases, the third generation of leaders — mostly born in Europe — are coming to the fore. Many of the younger leaders are pressing for an agenda that focuses on the interests and needs of Muslims in particular European countries rather than on global Islamic causes, such as the Israeli-Palestinian dispute.

Although its agenda might be changing, the Muslim Brotherhood remains controversial in many parts of Western Europe.

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Many Europeans believe that some Brotherhood-affiliated organizations are promoting agendas that encourage their followers to think of themselves first and foremost as Muslims, thus hindering the assimilation of Muslims in Europe.